In a study by Rice, Blanchard, & Purcell (1993) all subjects receiving biofeedback treatments showed significant reductions in anxiety and psychophysiological symptoms. Subjects were assessed six weeks posttreatment and the decrease in anxiety continued.

In a study by Ratanasiripong, Kaewboonchoo, Ratanasiripong, Hanklang, & Chumchai (2015) a sample of public health nursing students received biofeedback over a 4-week period which caused the student’s levels of stress, anxiety, and depression to decrease significantly.

Roome & Romney (1985) researched different means of reducing anxiety in gifted children. They found biofeedback to reduce their anxiety level notably.



Karavidas, Lehrer, Vaschillo, Vaschillo, Marin, & Buyske (2007) researched the effects of biofeedback for individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder. This study found significant decreases in depressive symptoms throughout the biofeedback treatment and at the end of the treatment.

Siepmann, Aykac, Unterdorfer, Petrowski, & Mueck-Weymann (2008) researched the effectiveness of biofeedback in response to depression. They found that biofeedback reduced anxiety and increased heart rate variability in patients already diagnosed with depression, it did not effect healthy subjects.



Nestroriuc, Y., Martin, A., Rief, W., & Andrasik, F (2008) evaluated the efficacy of studies researching the effects of biofeedback on migraines and tension headaches. They found decreases in headache frequency, as well as improvements in: pain, self-efficacy, anxiety, depression, and use of medication. 

In a study done by Grazzi, Andrasik, D’Amico, Leone, Moschiano & Bussone (2001) a group of juveniles were given biofeedback treatment for episodic tension-type headaches. Relief from the headaches was immediate with noticeable improvement through three years.

In a study by Arndorfer & Allen (2001) five children received thermal biofeedback to help alleviate tension-type headaches. The treatment was mostly successful with four of the five children being headache free six months after treatment.


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

A study by Zuker, Samuelson, Muench, Greenberg, & Gevirtz (2009) researched the effects of biofeedback combined with progressive muscle relaxation with individuals diagnosed with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Results showed a significant reduction in PTSD symptoms.

Tan, Dao, Farmer, Sutherland, & Gevirtz (2010) explored the effects biofeedback had on veterans with combat-related PTSD and depressed heart rate variability (HRV). The results showed biofeedback to reduce symptoms of PTSD and increase HRV.

In a study by Hickling, Sison Jr., & Vanderploeg (1986) six patients with PTSD were treated with biofeedback and therapy. Each subject demonstrated improvements with lowered EMG and decreases in MMPI scores.



Arndorfer, R., Allen, K. (2001). Extending the Efficacy of a Thermal Biofeedback Treatment Package to the Management of Tension-type Headaches in Children. Wiley Online Library. 41 (2), 183-192.

Grazzi, L., Andrasik, F., D’Amico, D., Leone, M., Moschiano, F., Bussone, G. (2001). Electromyographic Biofeedback- Assisted Relaxation Training in Juvenile Episodic Tension- Type Headache: Clinical Outcome at Three-Year Follow-Up the in    of and for on with at is an as by. Sage Journals.

Hauri, P. (1981). Treating psychophysiological insomnia with biofeedback. Archives General Psychiatry, 7, 752-758.

Hickling, E., Sison Jr., G., Vanderploeg, R. (1986). Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Relaxation and Biofeedback Training. Spring Link. 11 (2), 125-134.

Karavidas, M., Lehrer, P., Vaschillo, E., Vaschillo, B., Marin, H., Buyske, S., et al. (2007). Preliminary results of an open label study of heart rate variability biofeedback for the treatment of major depression. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 32, 19–30.

Nestroriuc, Y., Martin, A., Rief, W., & Andrasik, F. (2008). Biofeedback Treatment for Headache Disorders: A Comprehensive Efficacy Review. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback Journal, 33 (3), 125-140.

Ratanasiripong, P., Kaewboonchoo, O., Ratanasiripong, N., Hanklang, S., Chumchai, P. (2015) Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing. Nursing Research and Practice. Vol. 2015, Article ID 160746, 5 pages.

Rice, K.M., Blanchard, E.B., Purcell, M. (1993). Biofeedback treatments of generalized anxiety disorder: preliminary results. Biofeedback and Self Regulation, 18 (2), 93-105.

Roome, J., Romney D. (1985). Reducing Anxiety in Gifted Children by Inducing Relaxation. ERIC. 7 (3), 177-179.

Siepmann, M., Aykac, V., Unterdorfer, J., Petrowski, K., Mueck-Weymann, M. (2008). A Pilot Study on the Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback in Patients with Depression and in Healthy Subjects. Applied Psychological Biofeedback. 33. 195-201.

Tan, G., Dao, T., Farmer, L., Sutherland, R.J., Gevirtz, R. (2010). Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Pilot Study. Springer Link. 36 (1), 27-35.

Zucker, T. L., Samuelson, K. W., Muench, F., Greenberg, M. A., & Gevirtz, R. N. (2009). The effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia biofeedback on heart rate variability and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A pilot study. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 34, 135–143.